Sunday 1 oth. Breakfasted by agreement at Mr. Powell's, and in Company with him rid to see the Botanical garden of Mr. Bartram; which, tho' Stored with many curious pits. Shrubs & trees, many of which are exotics was not laid off with much taste, nor was it large. From hence we rid to the Farm of one Jones, to see the effect of the plaister of Paris which appeared obviously great—First, on a piece of Wheat stubble, the ground bearing which, he says, had never recd. any manure; and that the Wheat from whence it was taken was so indifferent as to be scarcely worth cutting—The white clover on this grd. (without any seed being sown & the plaister spread without breaking up the soil) was full high enough to mow, and stood very thick. The line between this and the herbage around it, was most obviously drawn, for there nothing but the naked stubble, some weeds & thin grass appeared with little or no white clover. The same difference was equally obvious on a piece of mowing grd. not far distant from it for where the Plaister had been spread the White and red clover was luxuriant and but little of either beyond it and these thin. The Soil of these appeared loamy—slightly mixed with Isingglass and originally had been good; but according to Jones's account was much exhausted. He informed us of the salutary effect of this plaister on a piece of heavy stiff meadow (not liable however to be wet) where it transcended either of the two pieces just mentioned in the improvement. This manure he put on the 2 9th. of October in a wet or moist spot, and whilst the Moon was in its increase, which Jones says he was directed to attend to (but this must be whimsical) and at the rate of about 5 bushls. to the Acre. When it is laid on grass land or Meadow he advises harrowing, previously, to the laying it thereon in order to raise the mould for incorporation. From hence we visited Mr. Powells own farm after which I went (by appointment) to the Hills & dined with Mr. & Mrs. Morris. Returned to the City abt. dark. 66 SUNDAY, JUNE Jo, 1787 67 JAMES MADISON TO JAMES MONROE Philada. June 1 0. 1787. Dear Sir I have been discouraged from answering sooner your favor of by the bar which opposes such communications as I should incline not less to make than you must do to receive. One of the earliest rules established by the Convention restrained the members from any disclosure whatever of its proceedings, a restraint which will not probably be removed for some time. I think the rule was a prudent one not only as it will effectually secure the requisite freedom of discussion, but as it will save both the Convention and the Community from a thousand erroneous and perhaps mischievous reports. I feel notwithstanding great mortification in the disappointment it obliges me to throw on the curiosity of my friends. The Convention is now as full as we expect it to be unless a report should be true that Rh. Island has it in contemplation to make one of the party. If her deputies should bring with them the complexion of the State, their company will not add much to our pleasure, or to the progress of the business. Eleven States are on the floor. All the deputies from Virga. remain except Mr. Wythe who was called away some days ago by information from Williamsburg concerning the increase of his lady's ill health. I had a letter by the last packet from Mr. Short, but not any from Mr. Jefferson. The latter had sett out on his tour to the South of France. Mr. Short did not expect his return for a considerable time. The last letter from him assigned as the principal motive to this ramble, the hope that some of mineral springs in that quarter might contribute to restore his injured wrist. Present me most respectfully to Mrs. Monroe. Yrs. Affecy. Js. Madison Jr. ALS (Library of Congress) RUFUS KING TO THEODORE SEDGWICK Philadelphia, io June 1787. I am happy my Dear Friend that you are a member of the Legislature for the present year; and cannot but flatter myself that you will have so respectable a number of your own sentiments that you will be able to check the madness of Democracy, and hold the political ship at least where she is, if you shall not be able to manage her agreeably to your own just opinions. Moderation and firmness will be essential in your measures; I wish you may have as good a proportion of these excellent qualities as truly characterise our convention. I know you are anxious, in common with the virtuous and reflecting characters of every State, to be informed of the Disposition and projects which have shown themselves in the Convention.