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title:“Robert R. Livingston's Notes of the New York Ratification Convention Debates”
authors:Robert R. Livingston
date written:1788-6-27

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last updated:Jan. 22, 2013, 8:16 a.m. UTC
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Livingston, Robert R.. "Robert R. Livingston's Notes of the New York Ratification Convention Debates." The Documentary History of the Ratification of the Constitution. Vol. 22. Ed. John P. Kaminski. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2008. 1950-52. Print.
Robert R. Livingston, Notes, New-York Historical Society

Robert R. Livingston's Notes of the New York Ratification Convention Debates (June 27, 1788)

R. R. LIVINGSTON. Ansd. III Objects propositions 1 That no excise be levied except in case of a deficiency in impost 2 No excise on our own manufactures 3. No direct tax be levied till after requisitions & neglect or refusal to comply Objt. 1st. to confine G[eneral] G[overnmen]t to imposts unless they are deficient— Ans: Unnecessary prefers easiest way collecting 2 Shd. be disposed to do otherwise am[endmen]t not prevent it— No precise duty fixed— of course [question?] depends their will— may render so small as to raise to excise— Not supposed seems to difficult measure when easy our prospects— If they wd. amt. no check— Imposts decrease as manufacture—If no Duties on Manufactures—Only resource direct tax— This requisition brings back old system— Objt. 2. To prevent excise on articles own Manufacture Ans: proper present State country— look forward time manufacturing country— Wine Spirits brandy Malt Spirits Beer— Not only source revenue but morals country [render] necessary to tax them— Maybe sd. State tax them— Expenditures State Small— Not tax them beyond what necessary— This Source revenue taken from Union render a direct tax more Necessary— 3 Objt. To prevent a direct tax without requisition— Consd. 3 Views 1. Respt. Genl Govt. 2. State 3. Citizens— 1. Respt. Genl Govt. Not take idea—present Situation— Contemplate various situations may future be placed—War destroy imports— Large armaments be necessary w[i] thin short period— Necessities other Nations—Coin plate &c. Mo. recognizes possible want— Inquire plan proposed calculated remove those wants 1. [Revives?] old System requisition— Not one ever complied wth. no reason expt. will future—made situation critical—[ever?] probably will be— 2 Delays—y[ea]r before legislatures convene from system taxation—carry it into effect 3 Consequences to States may be seat [of] war—over run—compelled extraordinary ex [er] tions— 4. Endeavors to guard this by collection or refusal—no remedy 1. When State refuses i[n]dividuals will not pay—none dare collect— 2 Not possible compel them when emergency exists— very ins[tant] therefore while it acknowledges that necessity may exist—defeats what acknowledges necessary— 2d Respg. State Govt This sourse objections arise— 1. That rights interfere 2 That be in power Genl govt. to annihilate State Govt. by attaching its resources— Argt. at least plausible— Nature to warm the imagination shd. be examined cooly &cautiously— presume resources State adequate wants both 1. Trace back find source of them in corruption of Genl Govt.— wh. great or small in proportion supposed probability of corruption— Nature Govt.—No. representatives—progressing—Citizens—interested State return to it—Senate—selected case— President Always 1st. integrity & Abilities—[sanction?] oath— What other securities do our own Govt. afford agt. Legislatures standing armies enslaving people— Attempt how effect it—distinguish—between Exclusive &concurring power— tax layd on same article—concurring powers— [- - - ] people with state paid preference—

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