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title:“Robert R. Livingston's Notes of the New York Ratification Convention Debates”
authors:Robert R. Livingston
date written:1788-7-1

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last updated:Jan. 22, 2013, 8:43 a.m. UTC
retrieved:Jan. 23, 2018, 6:03 a.m. UTC

Livingston, Robert R.. "Robert R. Livingston's Notes of the New York Ratification Convention Debates." The Documentary History of the Ratification of the Constitution. Vol. 22. Ed. John P. Kaminski. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2008. 2035. Print.
Robert R. Livingston, Notes, New-York Historical Society

Robert R. Livingston's Notes of the New York Ratification Convention Debates (July 1, 1788)

SMITH. State government may be controuled by gl. govt. — Lawyers differ— Doubt shd. be cleared up— Legislatures will construe as he does— Officers govt. must swear to preserve Const power includes right to remove impedaments to exercise— People make State & Genl Govts. therefore some principles common to both— No danger because State govt. necessary to carry them into effect— Thus reduce them to dependence Only place magistrates— People may hereafter reduce representation— Ques: people reason worse hereafter than now—
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SMITH. in reply to Mayor— explain— Govt. made present not future gen[eration]s
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R. R. LIVINGSTON. Discussed Friday G1 Govt.—State—indiv[id]ual Citizens— Hamilton's remarks— Absence Desultory remarks— Disagreemt. each otherSmith perfection state constitutions W[illia]ms Imperfection— Reasons— [ - - - ] [- - - ] — Mo. admits necessity Args. deny Impost Excise sufficient Excise deducted— Danger State govs. Congress—avaricious—ambitious &c. Light heaven— Dungeon— Impracticability collection Children on board— Argumt. examined— State Govs. Subverted. 1. No powers— denied Internal policepropertyLife. What powers under Confederation? 1st—War—peace—treaties—Army—Navy—civil Officers—Ambassadors Commerce—relinquish— Only powers taken away 1. Militia 2 Raising money for armies 3. interfering private contracts— Militia. 3 laws ten years— Money. limited by war—no necessity for raising—destroy confidence &c.—Selves [— — —]— 2 Objs. State [use?] —Supply genl treasury— 1. retained— 2 Measure not in their Discretion— Only means— Ques: has this added to confidence Discussed— Private Contracts— [— — —] [— — —] II. Reduce State. Exercise take away resources Concurrent admitted— Supreme Applies to powers granted concurrent—not exclusiveState county tax laid equaly supreme— Impracticable collect Intervention State necessary— Operate then—to secure State govs. Purse Sword Principle explained— State part sovereignty. Denied. State absolute matters in their jurisdiction Concurrent powers others— Subject others—at least citizens Sovereignty. one will—combined powers—Union communication—System— States no controul over each other— 13 Sovereignties—Congress & N Hampshire &c. Either all each controuled or not. Contrould power in Congress— Not controuled—No union Why keep purse? [— — —] No power to use it— Why sword? [— — —] [— — —] — [— — —] [— — —] — More difficulties more reflec
Defence Congress Ques: wth. or without Sword? 13 hands— Emblem head newspaper— Not prevent exercise but [— — —] [— — —] govt.— Ques: how each State judge every act? Separate governments— Jones [said] requisition complied wth. because compulsory power— Ques: what State refused? Money borrowed on credit without ple[d]ge NB. difference—one defeated one house Manufactures

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