But the next thing to be considered in conformity to my plan, is the first article of this new government, which comprises the erection of the house representatives and senate, and prescribes their various powers and objects of legislation.
The most general objections to the first article, are that biennial elections for representatives are a departure from the safe democratical principles of annual ones—that the number of representatives are too few;1
that the apportionment and principles of increase are unjust;2
that no attention has been paid to either the numbers or property in each state in forming the senate;3
that the mode in which they are appointed and their duration, will lead to the establishment of an aristocracy;4
that the senate and president are improperly connected, both as to appointments, and the making of treaties, which are to become the supreme law of the land;5
that the judicial in some measure, to wit, as to the trial of impeachments is placed in the senate a branch of the legislative, and some times a branch of the executive:6
that Congress have the improper power of making or altering the regulations prescribed by the different legislatures, respecting the time, place, and manner of holding elections for representatives; and the time and manner of choosing senators;7
hat standing armies may be established, and appropriation of money made for their support, for two years;8
that the militia of the most remote state may be marched into those states situated at the opposite extreme of this continent;9
that the slave trade, is to all intents and purposes permanently established;10
a slavish capitation, or poll-tax, may at any time be levied-11
these are some of the many evils that will attend the adoption of this government. But with respect to the first objection, it may be remarked that a well digested democracy has this advantage over all others, to wit, that it affords to many the opportunity to be advanced to the supreme command, and the honors they thereby enjoy fills them with a desire of rendering themselves worthy of them; hence this desire becomes part of their education, is matured in manhood, and produces an ardent affection for their country, and it is the opinion of the great Sidney, and Montesquieu that this is in a great measure produced by annual election magistrates.